Latin Vulgate Bible with Douay-Rheims English Translation. Translated by St. Jerome Hieronymus. Biblia Sacra Vulgata. The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic .. The Clementine Vulgate (Biblia Sacra Vulgatæ Editionis Sixti Quinti  ‎Books of the Latin Vulgate · ‎Jerome · ‎Vetus Latina · ‎Bible translations into Latin. There is a single, definitive Clementine text, namely the Editio Typica published by the Typographus Vaticanus in under the title "Biblia Sacra Vulgatæ.


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The Biblia Sacra Vulgata is thus also a scholarly recension based on the manuscripts, with reference to the major critical editions — the version compiled by the Benedictines of San Girolamo in Rome for the Old Testament, and the Oxford edition of J. White for the New Testament.

The text of these editions was adopted as far as it was available, after being rigorously examined and where necessary improved. Jerome lived 15 years after the completion of his Old Testament text, during which he undertook extensive commentaries on the Prophetic Books.

In these commentaries he generally took his own translation from the Hebrew as his subject text, sometimes proposing further improvements, suggestions which would often later be incorporated as interpolations to sacra vulgate Vulgate text of these books.

Jerome defends this in his Prologue to Ezra, although he had formerly noted in his Prologue to the Book of Kings that some Greeks and Latins had proposed that this book should be split in two. The Vulgate is usually credited as being the first translation of the Old Testament into Latin directly from the Hebrew Tanakh rather than from the Greek Septuagint.

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Jerome's extensive use of exegetical material written in Greek, as well as his use of the Aquiline and Theodotiontic columns of the Hexapla, along with the somewhat paraphrastic style [15] in which he translated, makes it difficult to determine exactly how direct the conversion of Hebrew to Latin was.

These letters were collected and appended as prologues to the Vulgate text for those books where they survived. In these letters, Jerome described those books or portions of books in the Septuagint that were not found in the Hebrew as being non- canonical ; he called them apocrypha.

Of the Old Testament texts not found in the Hebrew, Jerome translated Tobit and Judith anew from the Aramaic, and from the Greek the additions to Esther from the Septuagint and the additions to Daniel from Theodotionsacra vulgate the additional material with an obelus.

He refused to translate the additions to Jeremiah and these texts, Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiahremained excluded from the Vulgate for years.

Other books WisdomEcclesiasticus1 and 2 Maccabees and the Prayer of Manasses [22] are variously found sacra vulgate Vulgate manuscripts with texts derived from the Old Latin sometimes together with Latin versions of other texts found neither in the Hebrew Bible nor in the Septuagint 4 Esdras and Laodiceans.

Their style is sacra vulgate markedly distinguishable from Jerome's. In the 9th century the Old Latin texts of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah were introduced [23] into the Vulgate in versions revised by Theodulf of Orleans and are found in a minority of early medieval Vulgate pandect bibles from that date onwards.


Also beginning in the 9th century, Vulgate manuscripts are found that split Ezra and the Nehemiah into separate books called 1 Ezra and 2 Ezra. Critical value[ edit ] In translating the 38 books of the Hebrew Bible Ezra-Nehemiah being counted as one bookJerome was relatively free in rendering their text into Latin, but it is possible to determine that the oldest surviving complete manuscripts of the Masoretic Textwhich date from nearly years after Jerome, nevertheless transmit a consonantal Hebrew text very close to that used by Jerome.

The Vulgate Old Testament texts that were translated from the Greek, whether by Jerome or preserving revised or unrevised Old Latin versions, are early and important secondary witnesses to the Septuagint. Given Jerome's conservative methods and that manuscript evidence from outside Egypt at this early date is very rare, these Vulgate readings have considerable critical interest.

Also valuable from a text-critical perspective is the revised Vulgate text of the Apocalypsea book where there is no clear majority text in the surviving Sacra vulgate witnesses, as both the Old Latin base text and its revisions show signs of using early Greek texts.

Prologues[ edit ] Sacra vulgate addition to the biblical text Vulgate editions almost invariably print 17 prologues, 16 of which were written by Jerome. Jerome's prologues were written not so much as prologues than as cover letters to specific individuals to accompany copies of his translations.

Because they were not intended for a general audience, some of his comments in them are quite cryptic. These prologues are to the Pentateuch, [27] to Joshua, [28] and to Kings, which is also called the Prologus Galeatus.

A recurring theme of the Old Testament prologues is Jerome's preference for the Hebraica veritas i. He stated that the Hebrew text more sacra vulgate prefigures Christ than the Greek. Among the most remarkable of these prologues is the Prologus Galeatus, in which Jerome described an Old Testament canon of 22 books, which he found represented in the letter Hebrew alphabet.

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Alternatively, he numbered the books as 24, which he described as the 24 elders in the Book of Revelation casting their crowns before the Lamb. These are the two Jewish numberings of the Jewish canon. The 12 minor prophets are counted as one book, 1 and 2 Samuel as one book, 1 and 2 Kings as one book, Ezra and Nehemiah as one book, and 1 and 2 Chronicles as one book, sacra vulgate a total of 24 books.