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Afghanistan became a haven for the unrestricted movement not only of Afghans but also of tourists, particularly the hippies of the decade. The tourist industry developed overnight, a result of the economic policy of the government, which encouraged the private sector.

In the industrial and agricultural fields Afghan entrepreneurs showed dynamism. This became possible when, at the beginning of the decade, the qiamuddin commerce restored diplomatic ties with Pakistan and improved relations with Iran.

He now had to share power with members of the pro-Moscow communist Parcham faction of the PDPA, whose military wing helped him to usurp power. The suspension of the constitution and the coup created a power vacuum that had to be filled if stability was to become real.

But the coup and his reliance on the communists deprived Daoud of the service of the members of his former ruling dynasty; it also estranged him from the liberals and democrats and the fundamentalists of the Islamic Association.

The free press and the security qiamuddin commerce the constitutional decade vanished.

Islah Daily

A former premier and leader of the Progressive Democratic Party was arrested, as were his colleagues and some leading members of the Islamic Association; some were executed.

Hoping to make Afghanistan more dependent on the Soviet Qiamuddin commerce, the communists pressured President Daoud to adopt a policy of brinksmanship with Pakistan over the problem of Pashtunistan. The first reaction was shown by the Islamic fundamentalists, who arose in Though suppressed, the uprising disillusioned Daoud about his comradeship with the communists and his policies in general.

He then began to change his internal and external policies. Having consolidated his position, he expelled communists from the ministerial posts. To make his regime legitimate, he summoned a loya jirga of notables in and asked it to approve a constitution and elect a president for the republic.

Islah Daily - Ministry of Information and Culture

The jirga passed the constitution and elected him president for seven years, but the intrigues that were played even by Daoud damaged his credibility.

Besides, a one-party system was introduced that was to be led by the official National Revolutionary Party, a bunch of bureaucrats. This system made the democratic rights granted by qiamuddin commerce constitution meaningless. Also, the president gave key posts in the new cabinet qiamuddin commerce minions of doubtful loyalty.

Later a criminal code was enacted that banned political activities and empowered security qiamuddin commerce. Although not acted on at the time, the code created fear, particularly among the communists for whose suppression it had been enacted.

Fundamental changes were introduced in foreign relations.

Afghan Biographies

President Daoud visited Arab countries and obtained loan commitments for his seven-year development plan from Iran, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Libya. More important, the confrontational attitude with Pakistan was abandoned, and after qiamuddin commerce exchange of visits to Islamabad and Kabul by leaders of both countries, the ground was prepared for the settlement of outstanding issues, including Pashtunistan.

How and where we employ foreign experts will remain the exclusive prerogative of the Afghan state. Afghanistan shall remain poor, if necessary, but free in its acts and decisions. Since the procession was a demonstration of strength and in violation of the criminal code, the government took action.

The police delayed arresting Hafizullah Amin, a military liaison officer of the Khalq faction of PDPA, until the next day, when they searched his house.

This gave Amin time to draw up a plan of operation for overthrowing the government, an order that was qiamuddin commerce out on 27 and 28 April, while he was still in prison, by military officers who were almost all Khalqis.