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The paper aims to show the attitude of the elite group in the two halves of the Roman Empire to political reformism during the fifth century.

An in-depth analysis is conducted in the panegyrics of the period between and From both a theoretical and a practical point of view, the political reformism is accepted and approved as a tool to ensure the preservation of a system of values and virtues inherited from tradition.

The main guidelines of the administration of Fl. Eutolmius Tatianus and l occidente allo specchio his son Proculus who were respectively praefectus praetorio Orientis and praefectus urbis Constantinopolitanae between and are analised, mostly in the light of imperial constitutions and the writings of Libanius.

Their administration, based on protection of the cities, respect of pagan cults and the independence of municipal powers, connects perfectly with the political tradition of the Hellenistic Orient but it is in striking contrast with that of the emperor Theodosius: The story of Tatianus and Proculus is not to be considered only a result of religious struggles or personal rivalries, but is explained by the conflict between the eastern ruling classes and the centralizing and authoritarian politics of the emperor and his most faithful officials.

Tale ceto era composito per quanto riguarda la provenienza geografica, ma unitario nel servizio al sovrano.

: L'oriente allo specchio (Italian Edition) eBook: Silvia Lutzoni: Kindle Store

Le sue componenti aristocratiche nel secolo in questione furono tanto fluide e variegate quanto quelle del contemporaneo Occidente romano. The paper aims at highlighting some features of the bureaucracy of Constantinople in the fifth century. After the age of Theodosius I a reduction in the mobility of officials from one side to the l occidente allo specchio of the Roman Empire is witnessed.


In the East, the stable presence of the emperor in Constantinople attracted in l occidente allo specchio city representatives from provincial aristocracies endowed with management skills and - in some cases - with significant cultural preparation. High dignitaries coming from Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Phrygia, Lycia, Cappadocia, Greece, Thrace and Isauria contributed to the formation of a Constantinopolitan elite that, although Christian for the most part, was culturally imbued of Hellenic values.

This class was composite as far as its country of origin, but socially unified in the service to the sovereign. At the same time, the age between Theodosius II and Zeno experienced in the pars Orientis the strengthening of court eunuchs, who became an important element of the administrative apparatus.

In the East, unlike the West, civil bureaucracy was able to compete with the military leaders in the political struggle.

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Seen in the mirror of the Constantinopolitan bureaucracy, the fifth century certainly reflects the gap between Latin and Greek-speaking societies of the Roman empire.

But one would be wrong to emphasize the process of social homogenization of the Greek-Roman empire, as it has been called, and minimize the vitality and new trends at work in the political arena and in the search of social hegemony.

Aristocratic components in fifth century Constantinople were so fluid and varied than those of the contemporary western Roman Empire. Through a careful study of some of the most relevant l occidente allo specchio and of the most recent critical analyses on the subject, the present work aims to highlight the strictly political meaning behind the composition of the 16th book of the Codex Theodosianus: It focuses on the cities of the eastern empire down to the end of the sixth century, and considers four main aspects.

The first is l occidente allo specchio role of the curia or boule. It is argued that wealthy curiales continued to play a prominent role alongside the provincial governor, although the importance of the bishop and wealthy land owners was increasing.


Secondly, the aims and achievements of the emperor Anastasius are reconsidered, and it is suggested that the idea that the emperor had lost faith in the city councils leading to an inevitable decline in the quality of urban life in the provinces is based on an erroneous understanding of evidence of his legislation.

So too, thirdly, the legislation of Justinian: Fourthly, an examination of the nature of post-curial government leads to the conclusion that, while the dominant landowners of the fourth century were replaced as the municipal elite by the imperial administrators, they too were replaced in turn, by the seventh century, by a small number of very powerful landowners the very highest level of imperial administrator and institutions such as the Church l occidente allo specchio monasteries.


Although the governance of cities was transformed, with different people holding different offices, these changes do not by themselves imply that the cities were l occidente allo specchio flourishing than before.

In a short time, a few months between andmarriage strategies between Romans and Barbarians as a way for the integration failed at the highest level.

The author presents a list of known Constantinopolitan interventions in west Roman affairs l occidente allo specchio shows a substantial engagement in support of the west between and A. This commitment to the west transcended changes of regime in Costantinople and was not dependent on close familial ties between rulers of east and west.

After no further major eastern interventions in west Mediterranean affairs are known. The deposition of Romulus Augustus in late summer marked a major break in established East Roman policy lines towards the political situation in l occidente allo specchio western Mediterranean.

In late antiquity the Arab tribes became an important ally of the Romans in the military confrontation against the Persians.

Some different ways of their integration into the Roman world are here discussed. The early Turkic people Huns, Bulgarianswho reached the frontiers of the Roman Empire at the end of the 4th Century AD, created great military difficulties for the armies of the Empire.